Ubushakashatsi: 80% by’abanywi b’Itabi mu Isi babarizwa muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, bite mu Rwanda?


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Raporo yo muri Kamena 2021 y’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS), igaragaza ko mu bantu miliyoni 1.3 banywa itabi ku Isi yose, 80% muri bo ari abatuye mu bihugu bikennye n’ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere

Iyi raporo kandi igaragaza ko buri mwaka, abagera kuri miliyoni Umunani bicwa no kunywa itabi.

Ni mu gihe Ikigo cyo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika gishinzwe kurwanya no gukumira ibyorezo (CDC), cyo kigaragaza ko umuntu umwe muri batanu bapfa muri Amerika aba ahitanwe no kunywa itabi cyangwa n’izindi ndwara zimwibasira nyuma yo kurinywa.

Izo ndwara zirimo iz’umutima, kanseri, diyabete, umuvuduko w’amaraso, indwara zo mu buhumekero n’izindi.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’iki kigo kandi bugaragaza ko icyizere cyo kubaho cy’umuntu unywa itabi kigabanukaho imyaka 10 ugereranyije n’utarinywa.

OMS inagaragaza ko abantu 22.3% by’abari batuye Isi muri 2022 ari bo banywaga itabi, 36.7% muri bo bari abagabo, naho 7.8% bari abagore.

Iyi raporo igaragaza ko kunywa itabi biri mu biza imbere mu guteza ubukene bukabije abarinywa, kuko benshi muri bo usanga bataninjiza amafaranga menshi, n’ayo babonye bakihutira kuyagura itabi mbere yo kwita ku bindi bakeneye.

Mu Rwanda bimeze bite?

Ubushakashatsi bwa Gatandatu ku mibereho n’Ubuzima bw’Abaturage (DHS) bw’umwaka wa 2019/2020, bugaragaza ko abagore banywa itabi mu Rwanda bangana na 1% mu gihe abagabo ari 7%, ndetse abagabo bize amashuri abanza gusa ari bo bagize icyiciro cy’abantu benshi banywa itabi mu Rwanda.

Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’Ubuzima, Dr Yvan Butera, aherutse kuvugira mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ko u Rwanda rushyiraho ingamba zigamije guca intege abanywa itabi, haherewe ku kuba mu 2013 harashyizweho itegeko rigena imikoreshereze y’itabi.

Ati “Dushyiraho itegeko ryo mu 2013 hari ibintu bimwe na bimwe byashyizweho kugira ngo abantu banywa itabi, amikoro bashyiramo yiyongere hakaba haragiyeho imisoro itandukanye kugira ngo abantu bibagore bagura itabi’’.

Ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’iri tegeko ryatanze umusaruro, nyuma y’uko aho rigiriyeho abanywa itabi mu Rwanda bagabanutse ku kigero cya 5%.

Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ubuzima (RBC) gikangurira Abanyarwanda kwirinda kunywera itabi mu ruhame no hafi y’abana by’umwihariko, kuko bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku buzima bwabo.

Abana bahumeka umwotsi w’itabi ry’amasegereti baba bafite ibyago byo kugira ibibazo by’ubuhumekero, asima cyangwa bagapfa bakiri bato.

Ni mu gihe abagore banywa itabi batwite byagaragaye ko na bo baba bafite ibyago biri hejuru byo kubyara abana bafite ibibazo by’ubuzima, harimo kuvuka umwana atujuje ibiro cyangwa akavuka apfuye.

Itegeko N°08/2013 ryo kuwa 01/03/2013 ryerekeye kugenzura imikoreshereze y’itabi mu Rwanda, rikubiyemo muri rusange ibibujijwe ku banywi b’itabi n’ibirikomokaho.

Muri ibyo bibujijwe harimo gukoresha umwana mu icuruzwa ry’itabi n’ibirikomokaho ndetse no kunywera itabi mu ruhame.

Iri tegeko rigira riti “Birabujijwe gukoresha umuntu utagejeje nibura ku myaka cumi n’umunani (18) y’amavuko mu gucuruza, kugura, kugurisha no guhererekanya itabi n’ibirikomokaho. Birabujijwe kandi ko ucuruza itabi n’ibirikomokaho abigurisha umuntu utagejeje ku myaka cumi n’umunani (18) y’amavuko’’.

Itegeko rikomeza rivuga ko bibujijwe kunywera itabi mu ruhame, ahakorerwa akazi cyangwa ahahurira abantu benshi nko mu nyubako zikorerwamo, mu rukiko n’aharukikije, mu ruganda, mu cyumba rusange cyerekanirwamo filimi, ikinamico na videwo, mu bitaro, amavuriro n’ibindi bigo by’ubuvuzi, aho bafatira ifunguro, amahoteri n’utubari n’ibigo byakira abana.

Ntibyemewe kandi kunywera itabi mu duce turimo amacumbi yo kubamo n’izindi nyubako zifashishwa mu bikorwa byo kwakira no gukora uburinzi bw’abana cyangwa inyubako bigiramo cyangwa aho barererwa, aho basengera no muri gereza.

Ingingo ya 26 y’iryo tegeko ikaba ivuga ko kunywera itabi mu ruhame, kuriha cyangwa kurigurisha umwana, kurimushishikariza cyangwa kumukoresha mu icuruzwa ryaryo, bihanishwa ibihano biteganywa n’Igitabo cy’Amategeko ahana ibyaha mu Rwanda.


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