Duhugurane: Umugore winjije Virusi ya SIDA mu gihugu, yavuze ko yari agamije gukiza Ubuzima


image_pdfimage_print

Mu 1985, hagati mu ntamabara y’ubutita, isi yariho ihura n’inkubiri y’indwara n’imfu zidasanzwe kubera virus nshya.  

Hari hashize igihe gito Syndrome d’Immunodéficience Acquise (SIDA) yemejwe nk’indwara nshya mu 1981, igihe umubare munini w’urubyiruko ruryamana n’abo ruhuje igitsina bari batangiye kwicwa n’indwara zidasanzwe na cancer zitamenyerewe.

Byari bimaze no kumenyekana ko yandurira mu nshinge z’abitera ibiyobyabwenge hamwe no mu gutanga amaraso.

Inkuru yatangajwe n’Ikinyamakuru cy’bongereza BBC dukesha iyi nkuru, ivuga ko muri icyo gihe, yari “indwara itera izindi ndwara nyinshi uyirwaye. SIDA iragaragaza kunanira ubwirinzi bw’umubiri, bityo uyirwaye akicwa n’indwara nyinshi.”

Hashize imyaka, virusi yiswe Virus de l’Immunodéficience Humaine (VIH) yaratahuwe byemezwa ko ariyo itera SIDA.

Abantu bahiye ubwoba ndetse hatangira ubukangurambaga bwo kuyirwanya mu bihugu byinshi.

Ariko ibyo ntibyabaye muri Bulgarie, icyo gihe yari igihugu cya gikomuniste kigenzurwa bikomeye.

Abategetsi bacyo banze kwemera ko iki ari icyorezo baragikerensa, bayita “indwara y’abatiganyi” cyangwa ikibazo cy’umwihariko w’iburengerazuba, nubwo bwose hari abanyeshuri n’abanyamahanga bariho bapfira mu bitaro muri iki gihugu.

Muri icyo gihugu ntiyapimwaga kandi ntibemeraga ko ihari.

Inzobere

Radka Argirova, umwe mu bahanga ba mbere muri virusi muri icyo gihugu, yakoraga mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi kuri za virus mu murwa mukuru, Sofia.

Yari afite ‘doctorat’ yakuye muri kaminuza ikomeye ya Institut Ivanovski de Moscou mu myaka ya 1970…kandi yakundaga umurimo we.

Radka yabwiye BBC ati: “Nakoraga muri laboratoire ya Academie ya siyanse ya Bulgarie kandi hari laboratoire ikomeye yiga kuri za virus.”

Imwe muri virus we na bagenzi be bifuzaga cyane kwigaho ni VIH.

Ikipe ye yakurikiranye intangiriro y’iyi virus n’aho yaturutse guhera mu mpera z’imyaka ya 1970 hanze y’icyo gihugu.

Ariko nubwo yari imaze gukwira henshi kandi ica ibintu, amavu n’amavuko yayo yari akiri iyobera.

Iyobera abategetsi ba Bulgarie batari bafite ubushake bwo kumenya ibyaryo, ariko kuri Radka we yarabishakaga.

Umugambi wa ‘magendu’

Kuva muri Bulgarie ntabwo byamworoheye, ariko muri Kamena (6) 1985, Radka Argirova yagiye i Hambourg, icyo gihe hari mu Budage bw’uburengerazuba, mu nama y’iminsi y’abahanga muri siyanse, agiye kwerekana ubushakashatsi.

Iyo nama yari iyo kuvuga kuri cancer y’amaraso izwi nka leucémie/leukemia n’aho yaba ihuriye n’iyi virus nshya. Yabaye inama idasanzwe kuri we.

Benshi mu bahanga muri siyanse bakomeye ku isi bari baje muri iyi nama, barimo rurangiranwa umunyamerika Robert Gallo, waje kuba icyamamare ku ruhare rwe mu kuvumbura VIH nka virus itera SIDA, no gukora uburyo bwa mbere bwo kuyipima ikaboneka.

Ariko kugeza ubwo nta byinshi byari byakamenyekanye.

Muri uwo mwaka, Gallo yabwiye BBC ati: “Ntabwo twatekerezaga ko irimo gukwirakwira vuba vuba kuko ubundi virus nk’iyo bitoroha kuyanduza.”

Yongeraho ati: “Ntabwo twigeze twibaza ko iyi virus izica bingana gutya. Ijanisha ry’abanduye barwaye bakaremba riri hejuru kandi ririyongera.”

Umunsi umwe muri iyo nama, Gallo na Argirova batangiye kuvugana.

Argirova aribuka ati: “Icyo gihe, nanywaga itabi maze aza ansanga ngo ansabe itabi. Amenye aho nturuka, arambaza ati: ‘SIDA yifashe ite muri Bulgaria?’

“Naramusubije nti: ‘Sinabimenya kuko tutayipima. Urebye ntabyo nzi. Tugomba kubanza gupima’, Ariko nta virus mfite.”

Gallo yabonye igisubizo. Yasabye mugenzi we w’Umudage gutegura VIH muri laboratoire maze akayibika mu kantu gafite ubunini nk’ubwa telephone igezweho muri iki gihe.

Hashize iminsi micye, bayihaye Argirova kugira ngo ayigeze muri Bulgaria mu buryo bwa magendu mu ishakoshi ye yo mu ntoki.

Yabwiye BBC ati: “Kari akantu gatukura, ntiwari kubona virus cyangwa se uturemangingo twayo. Byari nk’umuvinyu utukura, kandi harimo utuntu tubiri; kamwe kariho uturemangingo twanduye akandi kariho ututanduye.

“Nafashe ako kantu, ngashyira mu isakoshi yanjye nerekeza i Frankfurt aho nafatiye indege ijya Sofia.”

Ubwoba n’Ubushake 

Umwe mu nshuti ze yagiye kwakira Argirova ku kibuga cy’indege maze bombi bajyana kuri laboratoire ya Academie y’igihugu ya siyanse kugira ngo babike iyo virus mu bushyuhe bwa degere 37, igipimo cyiza kuri yo.

Ariko ntiyari yizeye niba uturemangingo twa VIH twaba twarokotse urugendo rw’indege.

Yagize ati: “Uturemangingo na virus ubwayo biragorwa iyo bitari mu bushyuhe bwa degere 37 kandi urugendo rwari rugoyemo, byabaye ngombwa ko dushyira ibyo bintu mu cyuma cyabugenewe (incubateur).

“Ariko kuwa mbere, nashimishijwe no gusanga utwo turemangingo tukimeze neza, nuko ntangira gukora ubushakashatsi.”

Mu gihe uturemangingo twa VIH twari dutangiye gukura ahantu hashya yadushyize, kuri Argirova, ibintu byari bimeze nabi.

Amakuru yari amaze gukwira hose ko yazanye virus yica mu gihugu, ndetse na bagenzi be b’abahanga muri siyanse bari bagize ubwoba.

Ati: “Byaravuzwe cyane mu binyamakuru kandi hari abantu bari barakajwe n’uko dufite iyo virus. Bamwe bari bafite ubwoba, sinzi impamvu, ku bandi yenda byari ishyari.”

Guhatwa ibibazo

Radka Argirova yahise ajya mu mboni z’inzego z’umutekano za Leta, zamuhase ibibazo mu gihe cy’amezi ku buryo virus ya VIH yageze muri Bulgarie.

Ati: “Abantu bo muri minisiteri y’ubutegetsi batangiye kumbaza buri munsi uko Gallo yampaye iyo virus, n’icyo yari agamije…Cyari ikibazo kimwe igihe cyose, iminsi yose. Nageze aho ndambirwa kubisobanura.”

Nubwo bwose babanje kumurwanya bose, nyuma Argirova yabonye abamushyigikira mu bategetsi ba gikomuniste, icyuho mu butegetsi bwariho butembagaraga.

Amaherezo yemerewe guhuza bagenzi be maze bagakora uburyo bwo gupima VIH bahereye kuyo bafite.

Mu 1986, ibigo 26 byo gupima byashyizwe ahatandukanye mu gihugu, abanyabulgaria miliyoni ebyiri bapimwa SIDA.

Mu nkuru mbarankuru (documentaire) yakozwe imyaka itatu nyuma, bavugamo uko icyo gihe ibitangazamakuru byose byari byarakangukiye kuvuga amakuru ya SIDA.

Byatumye iyi virus hamwe n’iyi ndwara abantu benshi bayimenya, kandi Argirova na bagenzi be babasha gukora ubushakashatsi ku banduye n’uburyo bwo kwandura, nk’uko nawe abisobanura muri iyo documentaire.

Aho agira ati: “Uburyo bwose bwo gukoranaho mu rugo, nko gusangira amasahani, ibirahure n’ibindi nta na hamwe bihuriye no kwanduza iyi ndwara.”

Nyuma y’imyaka ine agejeje VIH rwihishwa mu gihugu cye iri mu ishakoshi ye, Argirova yahawe inshingano zo kwigisha rubanda rwa Bulgaria iyi virus na SIDA n’ibikorwa byo kuyirinda.

Uyu munsi, ni umuhanga mu bya virus muri bimwe mu bitaro bikomeye kandi byigenga muri Bulgaria.

Argirova kandi ni umwe mu nzobere zizwi cyane kandi zubahwa mu bushakashatsi kuri Covid-19.

Radka Argirova yinjije rwihishwa mu gihugu cye virus ya VIH ayitwaye mu ishakoshi, mu gihe cy’intamabara y’ubutita

 

Robert Gallo, umunyamerika wagize uruhare rukomeye mu kuvumbura virus ya VIH no kuyipima

 

Virus (ishusho y’abahanga) ya VIH yaje kuvumburwa ko ariyo itera indwara ya SIDA

 

Mu mpera z’imyaka ya 1990 n’intangiriro z’iya 2000 ibihugu byinshi byakangukiye kurwanya SIDA yari imaze igihe yiha inkumbi.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *