Duhugurane: Ni he hakomotse gukoresha Gereza nk’Igororero ry’abafunze


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Gereza ni ahantu h’akababaro. Ariko mu mvugo, intego yaho irenze gusa guhana: guhindura.

Muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, intego yo guhindura ufunze, ku gice kimwe, ihera mu 1876 hafungurwa ikigo bise Elmira Reformatory muri New York. Cyari kigamije “guhindura ku neza” abafunze, bitari gusa kubambura uburenganzira bumwe – nubwo uwagishinze Zebulon Brockway uzwi nka “sekuru wa gereza za Amerika” yari azwiho ubugome burenze.

Izindi Leta nyuma zahise zigaana ubu buryo, maze ihame ko gereza ari ahantu “ho kugorora” abantu rihinduka ibanze mu bucamanza.

Ariko igitekerezo cy’uko gufunga no kubabaza ari byiza ku mfungwa ntabwo cyaje icyo gihe mu kinyejana cya 19. Ibimenyetso bya cyera cyane bigera mu myaka 4,000 ishize; mu ndirimbo yo muri Mesopotamia – Iraq yo muri iki gihe, isingiza imanakazi ya gereza yitwaga Nungal.

Mu myaka hafi 10 ishize, ndi umunyeshuri wa kaminuza ukora ubushakashatsi kuri Mesopotamia ya cyera, nabonye inyandiko nyinshi zigaruka ku gufunga. Zimwe zari inyandiko z’ubutegetsi zivuga ku bikorwa buri munsi. Izindi zari inyandiko z’amategeko, ubuvanganzo, cyangwa amabaruwa bwite.

Natwawe no kureba ibijyanye no gufunga muri iyo mico: myinshi muri yo yafungaga abacyekwa by’igihe gito, ariko muri rusange gufunga babibonaga nk’igikorwa cyo guhindura, no kweza ufunze.

  • ‘Inzu y’ubuzima’

Ahagana mu 1800 mbere ya Yezu Kristu, abanyeshuri bitozaga nk’abanditsi mu mujyi wa Nippur – umujyi wa cyera cyane wahoze muri Iraq y’ubu, kenshi bakoraga kopi y’inyandiko 10. Bakoresheje uburyo bwo kwandika bwa cyera bwitwa cuneiform basubiramo inyandiko zirimo ibisingizo by’intwari Gilgamesh yarwanye n’ikinyamaswa giteye ubwoba kitwa Huwawa. Bandikaga kandi iby’umwami w’igihangange w’i Mesopotamia witwa Šulgi wavugaga ko ubwe ari imana.

Uwasomaga izi nyandiko ngo bazandike kandi yabwiraga aba banyeshuri n’ibijyanye n’imanakazi ya gereza yitwa Nungal.

Nubwo ubutabera bwe utashoboraga kubucika, Nungal yari izwiho ‘n’ubugwaneza’. “Inzu ye” yazanaga umubabaro ku mfungwa, bikaziviramo guhorana amaganya. Muri ayo maganya imfungwa zashoboraga kwezwa ibyaha byazo zikezwa n’imana zabo bwite, zabarindaga zikanababera umuhuza n’izindi mana zikomeye kurushaho.

“Indirimbo ya Nungal” yo muri iyo myaka, na mbere yayo, ivugamo uko imfungwa yahamwe n’icyaha igakatirwa urwo gupfa iticwaga ahubwo “yakurwaga mu rwasaya rw’urupfu” igashyirwa mu nzu ya Nungal, we yitaga “inzu y’ubuzima” – ariko kandi ahantu h’agahinda, ukwa wenyine, n’ububabare.

Gusa ariko n’ubundi iyo ndirimbo ikavuga ko imfungwa zaje guhinduka muri icyo gihe zamaze muri gereza.

Iyo manakazi yavugaga ko inzu yayo “yubatse mu bugwaneza, yoroshya umutima w’uwo muntu, kandi ikavugurura roho ze.” Amaherezo, nk’uko yabivagaga, bakicuza, maze bakera mu maso y’imana zabo.

Iyo ndirimbo igira iti: “Iyo imaze (inzu) guturisha umutima w’imana ye ku bwe, iyo imaze kumwoza agacya nk’umuringa mwiza, iyo imaze kumukiza umwanda…arongera nanone agasubizwa mu biganza by’imana ye.”

  • Ibya nyabyo vs inkuru ntekerezo

Urwego aba cyera bemeragamo inkuru nk’izi z’imana zabo ruracyari ikintu cyo kugibwaho impaka. Ese inyandiko nk’izi, “nk’indirimbo ya Nungal”, zari ikintu abantu bizera nk’idini cyangwa zari inkuru z’ibiganiro gusa zidafatwa nk’ukuri n’uwariwe wese?

Kuva ari inyandiko gusa, ntabwo zafatwa nk’ikintu cyo kwizera ko ari zo ubutabera bwari bushingiyeho. Ubwami butandukanye bwo muri Mesopotamia muri icyo gihe bisa n’aho bwari bufite za gereza zo gufunga abantu mbere yo kubahana, bisa n’uyu munsi aho bamwe mu bakekwa bafungwa mbere yo guhanwa.

Ubwo butegetsi kandi bwafungaga abantu mu kubahatira gutanga ihazabu cyangwa kwishyura ideni hamwe no kubahatira gukora imirimo y’agahato – rimwe na rimwe ufunze akarenza imyaka itatu. Gusa igihano, kenshi cyabaga ari icy’umubiri cyangwa imari, ntabwo cyabagamo gufungwa imyaka n’imyaka muri gereza.

N’ubundi gufungwa by’icyo gihe ategereje igihano byabaga birimo kubabazwa, aho umwe mu bafunze mu nyandiko yandikiye uwari amukuriye yavuze ko “gereza” ari inzu “y’agahinda n’inzara”.

Mu yindi nyandiko, uwayohereje yavugaga ko yarekuwe ariko yinubira uko mugenzi we yakubitwaga hakorwa iperereza – nubwo uwayanditse atavuze icyaha yashinjwaga.

Abashakashatsi Klaas Veenhof na Dominique Charpin babonye ibimenyetso ko Nungal yagiraga uruhare mu bucamanza. Ko mu masinagogi amwe n’amwe, indahiro zakorwaga hari urushundura – rumeze nk’urufata amafi – rwari ikimenyetso cy’ubucamanza bwa Nungal udashobora gucika.

Nyuma yaho haje n’umuhango wo gufunga umwami hagamije kumweza. Aho mu birori by’impera z’umwaka umwami yamburwaga ibirango bye akinjira muri gereza by’igihe gitoya agasengerwa ngo imana zibabarire ibyaha bye. Muri uwo muhango agatangazwa ko yejejewe bityo ashobora gusubira mu nshingano ze yera.

  • Ejo hashize n’uyu munsi

Nubwo abantu benshi batamaraga igihe kirekire muri gereza zo muri Mesopotamia, bazibabariragamo. Ari naho haba hava kuba barandikaga amagambo “y’indirimbo ya Nungal” kubera ibyo abantu bacagamo bafunze ngo bajye kuganya no guhinduka.

Ese igitekerezo cyakwiriye mw’isi kuva icyo gihe ko gereza ari nziza ni cyo?

Uyu munsi uko gereza zitandukanye zifata guhindura abazinfungiyemo bitandukanye n’uko “indirimbo ya Nungal” yabifataga. Nubwo bwose igitekerezo ko kubabara bishobora kuba byiza ku muntu ufunze cyo gifite imizi miremire kuva cyera no kugeza ubu – bigatuma inzego zifunga zivuga ko kubabara muri izo nkuta zabo ari ugufasha abafunze. (BBC)

Igitekerezo cyo gufunga muri iki gihe gifitanye isano n’itandukaniro n’icyo mu myaka ibihumbi ishize.

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