Kwibuka29: Uko Amacakubiri yaranze Ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda na Habyarimana yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi


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Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda muri Mata 1994, yasize ibikomere mu mitima ya benshi. U Rwanda rurakubitika, Abatutsi bicwa umusubirizo mu gihe cy’iminsi ijana y’icuraburindi kuva muri Mata kugeza muri Nyakanga 1994.

Ibyabaye byose byateguwe imyaka myinshi kuri Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri, ubwo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yakwirakwizwaga ikigishwa ikimikwa inzangano zigahabwa intebe n’amacakubiri agafata ibyicaro.

Iryo bibwa ry’ingengabitekerezo y’ivangura ryatumye bwa mbere mu 1959 habaho kwica Abatutsi, kubatwikira no kubamenesha mu gihugu. Abasigaye mu Rwanda na bo bakomeza gutotezwa bahezwa mu nzego zitandukanye z’igihugu.

Ubu bwicanyi n’uko gutoteza Abanyarwanda b’Abatutsi byategurwaga bikanashyirwa mu bikorwa n’ubutegetsi bwariho bugakangurira abaturage kwica no gutoteza binyuze mu mbwirwaruhame no mu nyandiko zakwirakwizwaga mu Rwanda no mu mahanga.

Mu myaka  ya 1960 na 1963 bwarakomeje kubibwa ndetse bwongera gufata intera ya Jenoside aho i Byumba hishwe Abatutsi barenga 2000 muri 1962 naho mu 1963 muri Gikongoro, Bugesera, Kibungo, Gitarama, Ruhengeri, Kibuye n’ahandi bufata intera ikomeye cyane hicwa abarenga 35.000 harimo 20.000 bishwe muri Gikongoro yonyine.

Iyicwa ry’Abatutsi mu 1963 ryakomeye kuri Noheli, hameneka amaraso menshi, bituma ababurokotse babwita “Noheli y’amaraso”, biba umuziro kuri bo no ku babo, kugeza muri 1994, wo kutarya inyama kuri Noheli kuko byabibutsaga amaraso yamenwe mu 1963 ku munsi hibukwa ivuka rya Yezu.

Raporo mpuzamahanga n’ inyandiko z’Abanyamahanga bari mu Rwanda n’itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga byemeje ko iyicwa ry’Abatutsi muri 1963 ari Jenoside.

Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi mu nama yayo  yo ku wa 7 Gashyantare 1964 yavuze ko   “Bitewe n’ibibazo biri mu Rwanda, cyane cyane ibirego bishinjwa Guverinoma y’icyo gihugu, birakwiye ko tubinyujije muri Ambasade yacu, dutanga amabwiriza Ababiligi bagomba gukurikiza arebana n’ibikorwa bibera mu Rwanda byo kumaraho Abatutsi. Ibihabera byafashe isura nini ku rwego mpuzamahanga, tukaba tugomba gukumira icyatuma u Bubiligi bushobora kuzashinjwa kugira uruhare muri Jenoside”.

Muri iyo myaka, Abatutsi bakomeje gutotezwa ababishoboye  bahungira mu bihugu by’amahanga, ari mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda cyangwa mu mahanga ya kure.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira, ingengabitekerezo yo kwanga no gutoteza Abatutsi ni ko yigishwaga igakwirakwizwa. Mu 1973 Abatutsi bari mu mashuri no mu mirimo bongeye kwirukanwa abarokotse bahungira mu mahanga ndetse bamwe baricwa.

Ubutegetsi bwariho bwabeshye ko Abatutsi bari bongeye kuba benshi mu mashuri no mu mirimo, bigisha abaturage ko bikomeje bityo bazongera gusubira ku butegetsi bagakandamiza Abahutu.

Ni muri izo mvururu ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973, Gen Maj Habyarimana Juvenal yafashe ubutegetsi ahiritse ubwari buriho yitwaje ko agiye kurangiza ibihe by’imidugararo byari mu gihugu.

Ubutegetsi bwe bwa Repubulika ya Kabiri bwakomereje mu murongo wigisha urwango, ivangura n’amacakubiri mu Banyarwanda, kubiba inzangano zishingiye ku moko n’uturere, guheza bamwe mu Banyarwanda mu mashuri, mu mirimo no mu mashuri. Icyo gihe politiki yiswe ‘Iringaniza’ yarimakajwe.

Impunzi zose z’Abanyarwanda zameneshejwe mu myaka ya 1959, 1960-1963 na 1973 zabujijwe uburenganzira bwo kugaruka mu gihugu cyazo mu gihe kirenga imyaka 30 kandi zamburwa imitungo yazo.

Mu 1975 Habyarimana yashyizeho itegeko rihindura imitungo y’Abatutsi bahunze, iya Leta. Iri tegeko ryaje rikurikira iteka rya Kayibanda ryo mu 1966 na ryo ryabuzaga impunzi uburenganzira ku gihugu no ku mitungo yazo.

Mu 1982 ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwanze kwakira impunzi z’Abatutsi barenga ibihumbi 40 zirukanwaga n’ubutegetsi bwa Milton Obote muri Uganda bwitwaje ko u Rwanda rwari rwuzuye rutagifite ubushobozi bwo kwakira abandi baturage.

Nyuma y’imyaka ine, ni ukuvuga mu 1986, komite nyobozi ya MRND yemeje ko impunzi zihabwa ubwenegihugu n’ibihugu zahungiyemo.

Mu 1987 nyuma yo kubona ko ubutegetsi bwa MRND bwinangiye ku bibazo byose byari bibangamiye itahuka ry’impunzi na demokarasi mu Rwanda, impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zifatanyije n’abandi Banyarwanda baharaniraga impinduka mu gihugu bibumbiye mu muryango FPR Inkotanyi banogeje umugambi zifata icyemezo cyo gutaha ku mbaraga zitangira urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu ku wa 1 Ukwakira 1990.

Urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu rutangiye mu 1990, bitewe n’ako karengane kose kari karimitswe na Leta za PARMEHUTU na MRND, Perezida Habyarimana yatangije gahunda ya Jenoside ku Batutsi, irangwa no gufunga abiswe ibyitso by’Inkotanyi no kwica Abatutsi henshi mu gihugu, ahereye mu duce yakomokagamo we n’abo bari bafatanyije ubutegetsi, twa Gisenyi na Ruhengeri.

Kuva mu 1991, ijambo ‘Gutsembatsemba’ ryakwijwe mu itangazamakuru nka Kangura yo ku wa 9 Gashyantare 1991 yanditse ngo “Mureke tumenye Inkotanyi n’abashyigikiye FPR, Tubatsembatsembe.”

Juvenal Habyarimana yabaye Perezida w’u Rwanda guhera mu 1973 kugeza tariki ya 06 Mata 1994.

 


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